Constitution Of Zambia Pdf

Except for an occasional Portuguese explorer, the area lay untouched by Europeans for centuries. In the same year, Northern and Southern Rhodesia now Zambia and Zimbabwe, respectively were proclaimed a British sphere of influence.

Constitution of Zambia

The Benguela Railroad, which extended west through Angola, was essentially closed to traffic from Zambia by the late s.

Conflicts with Rhodesia resulted in the closing of Zambia's borders with that country and severe problems with international transport and power supply. By the late s, Mozambique and Angola had attained independence from Portugal. Domestically, there were few trained and educated Zambians capable of running the government, and the economy was largely dependent on foreign expertise.

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Zambian constitution 2016 pdf downloadThe online guide to Zambia

By the latter part of that century, the various peoples of Zambia were largely established in the areas they currently occupy. Zambia's sympathies lay with forces opposing colonial or white-dominated rule, particularly in Southern Rhodesia. By the mids, despite limited debt relief, catalogo truper 2012 pdf descargar Zambia's per capita foreign debt remained among the highest in the world.

Zambian constitution 2016 pdf download

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In the mids, the price of copper, Zambia's principal export, suffered a severe decline worldwide. Zimbabwe achieved independence in accordance with the Lancaster House agreement, but Zambia's problems were not solved. At the core of the controversy were insistent African demands for greater participation in government and European fears of losing political control. At independence, despite its considerable mineral wealth, Zambia faced major challenges. Northern Rhodesia was the center of much of the turmoil and crisis that characterized the federation in its last years.

Civil war in the former Portuguese colonies generated refugees and caused continuing transportation problems. After the midth century, it was penetrated by Western explorers, missionaries, and traders. However, the Kariba hydroelectric station on the Zambezi River provided sufficient capacity to satisfy the country's requirements for electricity.

Constitution of Zambia