# Hash Algorithm Pdf

With such a function one can directly locate the desired entry in a hash table, without any additional searching. Hash functions can be used to build other cryptographic primitives. Using a cryptographic hash and a chain of trust prevents malicious changes to the file to go undetected.

This schema is also used in many text checksum and fingerprint algorithms. Symmetric-key algorithm Block cipher Stream cipher Public-key cryptography Cryptographic hash function Message authentication code Random numbers Steganography. This class includes the so-called acoustic fingerprint algorithms, that are used to locate similar-sounding entries in large collection of audio files. Here the and extensions to the name imply the security strength of the function rather than the output size in bits. Functions in the second category are the most secure but also too slow for most practical purposes.

Special class of hash function that has certain properties which make it suitable for use in cryptography. When testing a hash function, the uniformity of the distribution of hash values can be evaluated by the chi-squared test. Handbook of Applied Cryptography.

This special case of hashing is known as geometric hashing or the grid method. In these cases, the uniformity criterion should hold for almost all typical subsets of entries that may be found in the table, not just for the global set of all possible entries. Hash tables are also used to implement associative arrays and dynamic sets.

The determinism is in the context of the reuse of the function. Storing all user passwords as cleartext can result in a massive security breach if the password file is compromised. Collision attack Preimage attack Birthday attack Brute-force attack Rainbow table Side-channel attack Length extension attack.

Thai Duong and Juliano Rizzo. The Cryptography Mailing List. For example, when looking up a personal name, it may be desirable to ignore the distinction between upper and lower case letters. In many applications, the range of hash values may be different for each run of the program, or may change along the same run for instance, when a hash table needs to be expanded. This section needs additional citations for verification.

## Hash Functions

Just as block ciphers can be used to build hash functions, hash functions can be used to build block ciphers. For such data, a function that extracts the numeric part k of the file name and returns k mod n would be nearly optimal.

## Cryptographic hash function

It is based on the use of hashing to compare strings. One of the main applications of a hash function is to allow the fast look-up of a data in a hash table. The HashKeeper database maintained by the American National Drug Intelligence Center, for instance, deathly hallows pdf free is more aptly described as a catalogue of file fingerprints than of hash values.

This requirement excludes hash functions that depend on external variable parameters, such as pseudo-random number generators or the time of day. Needless to say, a function that is exceptionally good for a specific kind of data may have dismal performance on data with different distribution. For instance, a club membership list may contain only a hundred or so member names, out of the very large set of all possible names.

Multicollisions in Iterated Hash Functions. There are several methods to use a block cipher to build a cryptographic hash function, specifically a one-way compression function. Being hash functions of a particular kind, cryptographic hash functions lend themselves well to this application too. Hashes are used to identify files on peer-to-peer filesharing networks. It is often desirable that the output of a hash function have fixed size but see below.

Other types of data can also use this perfect hashing scheme. The same techniques can be used to find equal or similar stretches in a large collection of strings, such as a document repository or a genomic database.

Application to Cascaded Constructions. The methods resemble the block cipher modes of operation usually used for encryption. That cipher can also be used in a conventional mode of operation, without the same security guarantees.

Because the table is just bytes in size, it fits into the cache of modern microprocessors and allows very fast execution of the hashing algorithm. If, for example, the output is constrained to bit integer values, the hash values can be used to index into an array. The sender is required to find a message whose hash value begins with a number of zero bits. For example, an exponential time algorithm can sometimes still be fast enough to make a feasible attack. Contacts Morris Dworkin morris.

For example, a hash function well suited to indexing data will probably be a poor choice for a cryptographic hash function. Hash functions are also used to build caches for large data sets stored in slow media. That is, every hash value in the output range should be generated with roughly the same probability. Collision resistance prevents an attacker from creating two distinct documents with the same hash. Producing fixed-length output from variable length input can be accomplished by breaking the input data into chunks of specific size.

List Comparison Known attacks. For most types of hashing functions, the choice of the function depends strongly on the nature of the input data, and their probability distribution in the intended application.

In this case, the input strings are broken into many small pieces, and a hash function is used to detect potentially equal pieces, as above. Still, in a half-full table, a good hash function will typically narrow the search down to only one or two entries. However, that approach can have costs in efficiency and security. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

The meaning of the term is therefore somewhat dependent on the application since the effort that a malicious agent may put into the task is usually proportional to his expected gain. History of cryptography Cryptanalysis Outline of cryptography. In particular, a hash function should behave as much as possible like a random function often called a random oracle in proofs of security while still being deterministic and efficiently computable. Linear hashing and spiral storage are examples of dynamic hash functions that execute in constant time but relax the property of uniformity to achieve the minimal movement property. In other words, it must be a function of the data to be hashed, in the mathematical sense of the term.

The salt randomizes the output of the password hash, making it impossible for an adversary to store tables of passwords and precomputed hash values to which the password hash digest can be compared. However, since the needed effort usually multiplies with the digest length, even a thousand-fold advantage in processing power can be neutralized by adding a few dozen bits to the latter.